UPSC MAINS Botany Paper Syllabus & Topics 2017

Get UPSC Mains BOTANY Paper SYLLABUS & TOPIC details. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Exam Notification 2017 and what is the UPSC exam and other details about UPSC Exam & IAS or Civil Services Exam. Here you can get the Mains BOTANY Paper SYLLABUS & TOPIC details for Indian Forest Services IFS Exam. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has revised the pattern of Civil Services Mains examination. The written examination consists of nine papers, two qualifying papers and seven papers counted for ranking. As per Civil services mains new syllabus Instead of two, now mains exam will have only one optional subject and two optional papers consisting 500 marks. Botany is an optional subject. Details of the civil services mains Botany syllabus or Botany syllabus for IAS mains is given below.

UPSC MAINS BOTANY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS

  1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
  2. Cryptogams: Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes – structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.
  3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycada-les, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques. Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny. Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology. Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families – Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Astera-ceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae. Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy. Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm – its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.
  4. Plant Resource Development: Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov’s centres of origin; Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
  5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

UPSC MAINS BOTANY PAPER SYLLABUS PAPER – II

  1. Cell Biology: Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranes- cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes); Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis; Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.
  2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over; Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution – evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
  3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering – methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques – probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test, ttest and chi-square test); Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson); Correlation and regression.
  4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies; Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport; Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation) – electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation; Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014 www.employmentnews.gov.in 29 Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome); Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances – their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy, storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and manipulation.
  5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession; Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act. Forest types of India – Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism, IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention on Biological Diversity; Farmers’ Rights and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Paper II of Botany and Agriculture is quite similar if you see the syllabus. By writing previous/model Botany papers you will know what you have missed studying syllabus. And revising doesn’t mean reading something the second time. Revise Botany syllabus as much as you can. While preparing student must keep this Botany syllabus to check the progress

 

UPSC MAINS Language Paper BODO Syllabus & Topics

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS LANGUAGE PAPER BODO SYLLABUS & TOPICS details. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Exam Notification 2017 and what is the UPSC exam and other details about UPSC Exam & IAS or Civil Services Exam. In civil services mains exam there is one of the Indian language paper. UPSC compulsory language paper also called paper A in upsc mains. The IAS or civil services Bodo language syllabus & topics will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in civil services Bodo language Paper will not be counted for ranking. The civil services Bodo language paper is for 300 marks. Detailed syllabus & topics of civil services Bodo mains language paper 1&2 is given below.

UPSC MAINS LANGUAGE PAPER BODO SYLLABUS & TOPICS

UPSC MAINS LANGUAGE PAPER BODO SYLLABUS & TOPICS

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS BODO SYLLABUS Paper-I 

History of Bodo Language and Literature
(Answers must be written in Bodo)

Section-A

History of Bodo Language

  1. Homeland, language family, its present status and its mutual contact with Assamese.
  2. (a) Phonemes : Vowel and Consonant Phonemes (b) Tones.
  3. Morphology : Gender, Case & Case endings, Plural suffix, Definitives, Verbal suffix.
  4. Vocabulary and its sources.
  5. Syntax : Types of sentences, Word Order.
  6. History of Scripts used in writing Bodo Language since inception.

Section-B
History of Bodo Literature

  1. General introduction of Bodo folk literature.
  2. Contribution of the Missionaries.
  3. Periodization of Bodo Literature.
  4. Critical analysis of different genre (Poetry, Novel, Short Story and Drama)
  5. Translation Literature.

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS BODO SYLLABUS Paper-II

The Paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates.

(Answers must be written in Bodo)
Section-A

(a) Khonthai-Methai (Edited by Madaram Brahma & Rupnath Brahma).
(b) Hathorkhi-Hala (Edited by Pramod Chandra Brahma)
(c) Boroni Gudi Sibsa Arw Aroz : Madaram Brahma.
(d) Raja Nilambar : Dwarendra Nath Basumatary.
(e) Bibar (Prose section) (Edited by Satish Chandra Basumatary)

Section-B

(a) Gibi Bithai (Aida Nwi) : Bihuram Boro
(b) Radab : Samar Brahma Chaudhury
(c) Okhrang Gongse Nangou : Brajendra Kumar Brahma
(d) Baisagu Arw Harimu : Laksheswar Brahma.
(e) Gwdan Boro : Manoranjan Lahary
(f) Jujaini Or : Chittaranjan Muchahary
(g) Mwihoor : Dharanidhar Wary
(h) Hor Badi Khwmsi : Kamal Kumar Brahma
(i) Jaolia Dewan : Mangal Singh Hozowary
(j) Hagra Guduni Mwi : Nilkamal Brahma.

IAS or CIVIL SERVICES BODO MAINS Paper require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates. Answers must be written in Bodo. Civil services Bodo language paper should not be taken lightly. It is strongly recommended that candidate must prepare total syllabus & topics Civil services Bodo language paper thoroughly .

UPSC MAINS Chemistry Paper Syllabus & Topics

Get UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS. There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In upsc mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Chemistry is an optional subject and each Chemistry paper of 250 marks. Proper selection of the optional subject in upsc ias mains paper is important. Most of the syllabus of upsc ias mains chemistry subject is covered by physical and organic chemistry. Details of the UPSC ias mains Chemistry syllabus is given below.

UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICSUPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS

UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS PAPER – I

  1. Atomic Structure: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals
  2. Chemical Bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments; Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in H2+, H2, He2+ to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and CN–; Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length
  3. Solid State: Crystal systems; Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell; Bragg’s law; X-ray diffraction by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl and CaF2; Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors
  4. The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon: Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions and critical phenomena and liquefaction of gases, Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases
  5. Liquid State: Kelvin equation; Surface tension and surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action. 6. Thermodynamics: Work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cv a and ß; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics
  6. Phase Equilibria and Solutions: Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination
  7. Electrochemistry: Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties. Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries. Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; over potential; electro-analytical techniques: Polarography, amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their uses
  8. Chemical Kinetics: Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant; Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods; Collisions and transition state theories
  9. Photochemistry: Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields
  10. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis: Absorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts
  11. Bio-inorganic Chemistry: Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins
  12. Coordination Compounds:
    (i) Bonding theories of metal complexes; Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.
    (ii) Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and poly nuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
    (iii) EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
    (iv) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
  13. Main Group Chemistry: Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen compounds; Sulphur – nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.
  14. General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements: Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS PAPER – II

  1. Delocalised Covalent Bonding: Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.
  2. (i) Reaction Mechanisms: General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism of organic reactions: isotopic method, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
    (ii) Reactive Intermediates:
    Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium ions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.
    (iii) Substitution Reactions: SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.
    (iv) Elimination Reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination – Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
    (v) Addition Reactions: Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic addition to C=0, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
    (vi) Reactions and Rearrangements:
    (a)
    Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner- Meerwein rearrangements.
    (b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
  3. Pericyclic Reactions: Classification and examples; Woodward- Hoffmann rules – electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
  4. (i) Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.
    (ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.
  5. Synthetic Uses of Reagents: OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi and MCPBA
  6. Photochemistry: Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
  7. Spectroscopy:
    Principle and applications in structure elucidation:
    (i) Rotational: Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
    (ii) Vibrational: Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
    (iii) Electronic: Singlet and triplet states; N?p* and pp*? transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules; Charge transfer spectra.
    (iv) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.
    (v) Mass Spectrometry: Parent peak, base peak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement

Civil services chemistry paper should not be taken lightly. Maintain a synopsis for each topic of mains chemistry syllabus. It is strongly recommended that candidate must prepare total syllabus & topics Civil services chemistry optional paper thoroughly. I hope this article will help you in preparing ias mains chemistry optional subject.

UPSC MAINS Geology Syllabus 2017

UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains GEOLOGY Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains GEOLOGY Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. Also Read UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS , UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS & Topics 2017. There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Geology subject comes under UPSC optional subject. After UPSC geology main exam students will select for the posts are Hydro geologist, Geologist, collaborator Geologist and Assistant Hydrogeologist in India. Each Geology paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Geology mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Geology mains exam.

UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017

UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017

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UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017 – PAPER – I

  1. General Geology: The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy.
  2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent. Aerial photographs and their interpretation- merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) – its applications.
  3. Structural Geology: Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time relationship between crystallization and deformation.
  4. Paleontology: Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.
  5. Indian Stratigraphy: Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.
  6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology: Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Ground-water chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017 – PAPER – 2
  1. Mineralogy:
    Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
  2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite- silica systems; Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentiation and assimilation; Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petro-graphy and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
  3. Sedimentary Petrology: Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance; Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.
  4. Economic Geology: Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
  5. Mining Geology: Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
  6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Trace elements; Elements of crystal chemistrytypes of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash; Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection – legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.

The UPSC Geology main paper I syllabus covers the entire syllabus of geo-morphology, paleontology, geotectonics etc. The UPSC Geology Mains Paper II will generally get questions from subjects like Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry. Environmental Geology and Geochemistry. With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the geology subject. UPSC geology syllabus is quite lengthy but easy to understand. While preparing student must keep this UPSC geology syllabus and previous papers to check the progress.

Civil Services MAINS Indian History Syllabus

Get CIVIL SERVICES MAINS INDIAN HISTORY SYLLABUS. Get UPSC Mains INDIAN HISTORY Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains INDIAN HISTORY Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. Also Read UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS , UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS & Topics 2017. History is one of the most popular optional paper in civil services exam. As per new pattern there are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In upsc civil services mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. History subject comes under upsc optional subject. Answer questions on Indian Administration keeping in mind the basic structure of the Indian Constitution and Preamble. Each History paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each History mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of civil services indian history mains exam.

CIVIL SERVICES MAINS INDIAN HISTORY SYLLABUS

CIVIL SERVICESS MAINS INDIAN HISTORY SYLLABUS

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CIVIL SERVICES MAINS INDIAN HISTORY SYLLABUS PAPER – I

  1. Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
  2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
  3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
  4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
  5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
  6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
  7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
  8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas): Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
  9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
  10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
  11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Govern-ment; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
  12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
  13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
    • Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
    • The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
    • “Indian Feudalism”
    • Agrarian economy and urban settlements
    • Trade and commerce
    • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
    • Condition of women
    • Indian science and technology
  14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750- 1200:
    • Philosophy: Shankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma- Mimansa
    • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
    • Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhana’s Rajatarangini, Alberuni’s India
    • Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
  15. The Thirteenth Century:
    • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
    • Economic, social and cultural consequences
    • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
    • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
  16. The Fourteenth Century:

“The Khalji Revolution”

    • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
    • Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
    • Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
  1. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
    – Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery  under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
    – Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of  South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
    – Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and    commerce
  2. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy: – Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
    – The Vijayanagra Empire
    – Lodis
    – Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
    – The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
    – Portuguese Colonial enterprise
    – Bhakti and Sufi Movements
  3. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
    – Regional cultural specificities
    – Literary traditions
    – Provincial architecture
    – Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
  4. Akbar:
    – Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
    – Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
    – Rajput policy
    – Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
    – Court patronage of art and technology
  5. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
    – Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
    – The Empire and the Zamindars
    – Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
    – Nature of the Mughal State
    – Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
    – The Ahom Kingdom
    – Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
  6. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
    – Population, agricultural production, craft production
    – Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution
    – Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
    – Condition of peasants, condition of women
    – Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
  7. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
    – Persian histories and other literature
    – Hindi and other religious literature
    – Mughal architecture
    – Mughal painting
    – Provincial architecture and painting
    – Classical music
    – Science and technology
  8. The Eighteenth Century:
    – Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
    – The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
    – Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
    – The Maratha fiscal and financial system
    – Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
    – State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

CIVIL SERVICESS MAINS INDIAN HISTORY SYLLABUS PAPER – 2

  1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
  2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
  3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India. 34 www.employmentnews.gov.in Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014
  4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
    (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
    (b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including tele-graph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
  5. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
  6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
  7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
  8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
  9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
  10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
  11. Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
  12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
  13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
  14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post
    – colonial India; Progress of science.
  16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
    (i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
    (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
    (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
  17. Origins of Modern Politics:
    (i) European States System.
    (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
    (iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
    (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
    (v) British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
  18. Industrialization:
    (i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
    (ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
    (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
  19. Nation-State System:
    (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
    (ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
    (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.
  20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
    (i) South and South-East Asia
    (ii) Latin America and South Africa
    (iii) Australia
    (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
  21. Revolution and Counter- Revolution:
    (i) 19th Century European revolutions
    (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
    (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
    (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949
  22. World Wars:
    (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
    (ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
    (iii) World War II: Causes and consequence
  23. The World after World War II:
    (i) Emergence of two power blocs
    (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
    (iii) UNO and the global disputes.
  24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
    (i) Latin America-Bolivar
    (ii) Arab World-Egypt
    (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
    (iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam
  25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
    (i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
  26. Unification of Europe:
    (i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
    (ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
    (iii) European Union.
  27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
    (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
    (ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
    (iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the history subject. Civil services history syllabus is quite lengthy but easy to understand. While preparing student must keep this Civil services history syllabus and previous papers to check the progress.

UPSC Civil Services MAINS Law Syllabus

Get CIVIL SERVICES MAINS LAW SYLLABUS. Get UPSC Civil Service India Mains Law Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Civil Service India Mains Law Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. Also Read UPSC Mains INDIAN HISTORY Syllabus, UPSC MAINS CHEMISTRY PAPER SYLLABUS & TOPICS , UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS & Topics 2017.  There are 2 optional papers in UPSC Civil Service India mains exam. In upsc civil service india mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. law subject comes under upsc civil service india optional subject. law is a subject where answers are highly specific and have to be given within the confines of the statutory law. Each law paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each law mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of upsc 2017 law mains exam.

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS LAW SYLLABUS

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES MAINS LAW SYLLABUS

Also See

  • UPSC MAINS CIVIL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS 2017
  • UPSC MAINS ECONOMICS SYLLABUS 2017
  • UPSC MAINS GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS 2017

UPSC MAINS LAW SYLLABUS PAPER – I 

Get UPSC Civil Service India Mains Law Syllabus Paper – I from below.

Constitutional and Administrative Law

  1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.
  2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
  3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.
  4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.
  5. Governor and his powers.
  6. Supreme Court and High Courts:
    (a) Appointments and transfer.
    (b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.
  7. Centre, States and local bodies:
    (a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.
    (b) Local bodies.
    (c) Administrative relationship among Union, State and Local Bodies.
    (d) Eminent domain – State property – common property – community property.
  8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.
  9. Services under the Union and the States:
    (a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.
    (b) Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions
    (c) Election Commission – Power and functions.
  10. Emergency provisions.
  11. Amendment of the Constitution.
  12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.
  13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
  14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.
  15. Judicial review of administrative action.
  16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law

  1. Nature and definition of international law.
  2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.
  3. State recognition and state succession.
  4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.
  5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
  6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.
  7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.
  8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.
  9. Peaceful settlement of disputes – different modes.
  10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defence, intervention.
  11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.
  12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.
  13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.
  14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
  15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.

UPSC MAINS LAW SYLLABUS PAPER – 2 

Get UPSC Civil Service India Mains Law Syllabus Paper – 2 from below.

Law of Crimes

  1. General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.
  2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.
  3. Preparation and criminal attempt.
  4. General exceptions.
  5. Joint and constructive liability.
  6. Abetment.
  7. Criminal conspiracy.
  8. Offences against the State.
  9. Offences against public tranquility.
  10. Offences against human body.
  11. Offences against property.
  12. Offences against women.
  13. Defamation.
  14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
  15. Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.
  16. Plea bargaining.

Law of Torts

  1. Nature and definition.
  2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.
  3. Vicarious liability including State liability.
  4. General defences.
  5. Joint tort feasors.
  6. Remedies.
  7. Negligence.
  8. Defamation.
  9. Nuisance.
  10. Conspiracy.
  11. False imprisonment.
  12. Malicious prosecution.
  13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law

  1. Nature and formation of contract/Econtract.
  2. Factors vitiating free consent.
  3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
  4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
  5. Quasi- Contracts.
  6. Consequences of breach of contract.
  7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
  8. Contract of agency.
  9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
  10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
  11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
  12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
  13. Standard form contracts. Contemporary Legal Developments
  14. Public Interest Litigation.
  15. Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.
  16. Information Technology Law including Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/ prospects.
  17. Competition Law- Concept, purpose/ prospects.
  18. Alternate Dispute Resolution – Concept, types/prospects.
  19. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
  20. Right to Information Act.
  21. Trial by media.

Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014 www.employmentnews.gov.in 35 Literature of the following languages

Note (i) : A candidate may be required to answer some or all the questions in the language concerned.

Note (ii) : In regard to the languages included in the Eighth Schedule to Constitution, the scripts will be the same as indicated in Section-II (B) of Appendix I relating to Main Examination.

Note (iii) : Candidates should note that the questions not required to be answered in a specific language will have to be answered in the language medium indicated by them for answering papers on Essay, General Studies and Optional Subjects.

Non-law background students have been apprehensive to opt for law. In mains law syllabus some important parts are covered in prelims and mains general studies syllabus  and made easy for law students. It is strongly recommended that candidate must prepare total syllabus & topics Civil services law optional paper thoroughly.

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