UPSC IFS MAINS Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science Syllabus

Get UPSC IFS MAINS ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE SYLLABUS  for Civil Services Exam 2017. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has revised the pattern of Civil Services Mains examination. Here you can check UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 exam. The written examination consists of nine papers, two qualifying papers and seven papers counted for ranking. As per UPSC mains new syllabus there are four general studies papers consisting 1000 marks and two optional papers consisting 500 marks. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE is an optional subject. Details of the UPSC mains ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE syllabus is given below.UPSC IFS MAINS ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE SYLLABUS

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UPSC IAS Mains General Studies 1 Syllabus

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Animal Nutrition:
1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals – Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.
1.4 Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recen advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti – nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production. 1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.

  1. Animal Physiology: 

    2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and disease.
    2.2 Blood constituents – Properties and functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants- blood groups-Blood volume- Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
    2.3 Circulation – Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart function metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.
    2.4 Respiration – Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases –neural control of respiration-chemoreceptors- hypoxia-respiration in birds.
    2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction.
    2.6 Endocrine glands – Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal receptorsclassification and function.
    2.7 Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
    2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion- Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
    2.9 Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters and their importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production

  2. Animal Reproduction: Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding
  3. Livestock Production and Management: 

    4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records. 4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production-Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio-economic concept. 4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities

  4. Genetics and Animal Breeding: History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance. Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Trans-genesis. 5.1 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding, Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives. 5.2 Breeding Systems- Breeds of livest- sock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.
  5. Extension: Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development


  1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining – Freezing microtomy- Microscopy- Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell, organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types- Tissues and their classification embryonic and adult tissues-Comparative histology of organs-Vascular. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal and urogenital systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-sense organs.
    1.2 Embryology – Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization- germ layers- foetal membranes and placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning- organogenesis -germ layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivates.
    1.3 Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental and cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
    1.4 Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
    1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs – Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics- chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.
    1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation – Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil- Importance of climate in animal health- effect of environment on animal function and performance- relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birdsstress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.
  2. Animal Diseases:
    2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.
    2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.
    2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
    2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
    2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
    2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseasesherd immunity- disease free zones- ‘zero’ disease concept- chemoprophylaxis.
    2.7 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general- preanesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.
    2.8 Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigation- Establishment of Animal Health Centers- Disease free zone.
  3. Veterinary Public Health:
    3.1 Zoonoses. – Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseasesoccupational zoonotic diseases.
    3.2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
    3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases – State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases- S P C A- Veterolegal cases- Certificates -Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.
  4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:
    4.1 Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
    4.2 Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, processing, storing , distributing and marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products- BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of dairy products.
  5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:5.1 Meat Hygiene.
    5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts- grading of carcass meat cuts- duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
    5.1.2 Hygenic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and control measures- Post – slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them- Quality improvement methods – Adulteration of meat and detection – Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
    5.2 Meat Technology.
    5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations.
    5.3 By- products- Slaughter house byproducts and their utilization- Edible and inedible by products- Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products- Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
    5.4 Poultry Products Technology- Chemical composition and nutritive valueof poultry meat, pre – slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value added meat products. 5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming – Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.

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UPSC IAS Mains General Studies 3 Syllabus

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Instead of two, now UPSC will have only one optional subject. The changed syllabus requires more attention on GS so selecting an optional with which you are more comfortable is very important. What is more important is that contents of the ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE syllabus should be clearly understood. By writing previous/model ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE papers you will know what you have missed studying syllabus. And revising doesn’t mean reading something the second time. Revise ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE syllabus as much as you can. While preparing student must keep this ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE syllabus to check the progress.

UPSC MAINS Economics syllabus 2017

UPSC MAINS ECONOMICS SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains ECONOMICS Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains ECONOMICS Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. UPSC 2017 ECONOMICS MAIN SYLLABUS: There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Economics subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Economics main exam is a very interesting and well performing optional in UPSC. Each Economics paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Economics mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Economics mains exam.




  1. Advanced Micro Economics:
    (a) Marshallian and Walrasiam Approaches to Price determination.
    (b) Alternative Distribution Theories: Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki
    (c) Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.
    (d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.
  2. Advanced Macro Economics:
    Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination: Classical, Keynes (IS-LM) curve, Neo classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.
  3. Money – Banking and Finance:
    (a) Demand for and Supply of Money:
     Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury.
    Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.
    (b) Public Finance and its Role in Market Economy: In stabilization of supply, allocation of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Govt. revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public Expenditure and its effects.
  4. International Economics:
    (a) Old and New Theories of International Trade
    (i) Comparative Advantage
    (ii) Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.
    (iii) Product Cycle and Strategic
    Trade Theories.
    (iv)Trade as an engine of growth and theories of under development in an open economy.(b) Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota.(c) Balance of Payments Adjustments: Alternative Approaches.(i) Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates,
    (ii) Theories of Policy Mix
    (iii) Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility
    (iv) Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries: Currency Boards.
    (v) Trade Policy and Developing Countries.
    (vi) BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro-model.
    (vii) Speculative attacks
    (viii) Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.
    (ix) WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.
  5. Growth and Development:
    (a) (i) Theories of growth: Harrod’s model,
    (ii) Lewis model of development with surplus labour
    (iii) Balanced and Unbalanced growth,
    (iv) Human Capital and Economic Growth.
    (v) Research and Development and Economic Growth(b) Process of Economic Development of Less developed countries:
    Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.(c) Economic development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.(d) Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private- Public Partnership(e) Welfare indicators and measures of growth – Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.(f) Development and Environmental Sustainability – Renewable and Non Renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.


  1. Indian Economy in Pre- Independence Era:
    Land System and its changes, Commercialization of agriculture, Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport: Jute, Cotton, Railways, Money and Credit.
  2. Indian Economy after Independence:

    A The Pre Liberalization Era:

    (i) Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.
    (ii) Agriculture: Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture,
    (iii) Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, Small scale and cottage industries.
    (iv)National and Per capita income: patterns, trends, aggregate and Sectoral composition and changes their in.
    (v) Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.B The Post Liberalization Era:
    (i) New Economic Reform and Agriculture: Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, Subsidies, Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.
    (ii) New Economic Policy and Industry: Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals.
    (iii)New Economic Policy and Trade: Intellectual property rights: Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.
    (iv)New Exchange Rate Regime: Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.
    (v) New Economic Policy and Public Finance: Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.
    (vi)New Economic Policy and Monetary system. Role of RBI under the new regime.
    (vii) Planning: From central Planning to indicative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning: 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
    (viii) New Economic Policy and Employment: Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural, Employment Guarantee Scheme.

The changed syllabus requires more attention on GS so selecting an optional with which you are more comfortable is very important. Revise Economics syllabus as much as you can. Maintain a synopsis for each topic of UPSC mains Economics syllabus. While preparing student must keep this Economics syllabus and previous papers to check the progress.

UPSC MAINS Electrical Engineering Syllabus 2017

UPSC MAINS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Electrical engineering subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Electrical engineering exam is part of engineering services exam. UPSC Electrical engineering exam is preferable for Electrical engineering students. Each Electrical engineering paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Electrical engineering mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Electrical engineering mains exam.

UPSC Mains Electrical Engineering Syllabus


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Circuit Theory:
Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks.

  1. Signals & Systems:
    Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.
  2. E.M. Theory:
    Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.
  3. Analog Electronics:
    Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.
  4. Digital Electronics:
    Boolean algebra; minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).
  5. Energy Conversion:
    Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors; Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.
  6. Power Electronics and Electric Drives:
    Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET– static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters: fully controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DCDC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac Motor drives applications of variable speed drives.
  7. Analog Communication:
    Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, De-emphasis, Pre emphasis. CW modulation system: Super heterodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.


Control Systems:
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode plots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State variable representation and analysis of control systems.

  1. Microprocessors and Microcomputers:
    PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register set, timing diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.
    32 Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014
  2. Measurement and Instrumentation:
    Error analysis; measurement of current, voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments: multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum- analyzer, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-gauge, piezo-electric crystal.
  3. Power Systems: Analysis and Control:
    Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission
  4. Power System Protection:
    Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays.
    Circuit breakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection
  5. Digital Communication:
    Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes.
    Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

Revise UPSC Electrical engineering syllabus as much as you can. It is important that UPSC Electrical engineering syllabus should be clearly understood Maintain a synopsis for each topic of UPSC mains Electrical engineering syllabus. While preparing student must keep this Electrical engineering syllabus and previous papers to check the progress.

UPSC MAINS Geography Syllabus 2017

UPSC MAINS GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains GEOGRAPHY Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains GEOGRAPHY Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Geography subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Geography main exam syllabus deals with our own environment which we can relate to and that is learning for life not only for the IAS exam!. Each Geography paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Geography mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Geography mains exam.





Physical Geography:

  1. Geomorphology:
    Factors controlling landform development; endo genetic and exo genetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
  2. Climatology:
    Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
  4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agroforestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography:

  1. Perspectives in Human Geography:
    Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index. |
  2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
  3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.


  1. Physical Setting:
    Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources:
    Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agroecological regions.
  4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionali-sation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco – tourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

 Note: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the UPSC mains Geography subject. Since all the physical aspects of geography follow a logical sequence it is easy to remember and comprehend. It is strongly recommended that candidate must prepare total syllabus & topics Civil services geography optional paper thoroughly. I hope this article will help you in preparing ias mains geography optional subject.

UPSC MAINS Civil Engineering Syllabus 2017

UPSC MAINS CIVIL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Civil Engineering Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Civil Engineering Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2016 & 2018 exams . There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Civil engineering subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC civil engineering exam also called engineering services exam. UPSC civil engineering exam is preferable for civil engineering students. Each civil engineering paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each civil engineering mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 civil engineering mains exam.



  1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis:1.1 Engineering Mechanics:
    Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system. First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia. Static Friction. Kinematics and Kinetics: Kinematics in Cartesian Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.1.2 Strength of Materials:
    Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.
    Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae.1.3 Structural Analysis:
    Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope deflection, moment distribution, Rolling loads and Influences lines: Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects.Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.Plastic Analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.
  2. Design of Structures: Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures:

    2.1 Structural Steel Design:
    Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression member, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.2.2 Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures:
    Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State method of design–Recommendations of I.S. codes Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.Water tanks: Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.Prestressed concrete: Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress. Design of brick masonry as per I.S.Codes
  3. Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines:

    3.1 Fluid Mechanics:
    Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces act- 30 Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014 ing on plane and curved surfaces.Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions.Continuity, momentum and energy equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.3.2 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:
    Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters.3.3 Laminar Flow:
    Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.3.4 Boundary layer:
    Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.Turbulent flow through pipes:
    Characteris-tics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.3.5 Open channel flow:
    Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.3.6 Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower:
    Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.
    Principles of hydropower development.
  4. Geotechnical Engineering: Soil Type and structure – gradation and particle size distribution – consistency limits.
    Water in soil – capillary and structural – effective stress and pore water pressure – permeability concept – field and laboratory determination of permeability – Seepage pressure – quick sand conditions – Shear strength determination – Mohr Coulomb concept.
    Compaction of soil – Laboratory and field tests.
    Compressibility and consolidation concept – consolidation theory – consolidation settlement analysis.
    Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and Braced excavation.
    Bearing capacity of soil – approaches for analysis – Field tests – settlement analysis – stability of slope of earth walk.
    Subsurface exploration of soils – methods Foundation – Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures – Design criteria for foundation – Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile – pile group action-pile load test.
    Ground improvement techniques.


  1. Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management:1.1 Construction Technology:
    Engineering Materials:
    Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction
    – Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and Concrete.
    Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced C.C, High strength concrete.
    Timber, properties and defects – common preservation treatments.
    Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High Rise Buildings.1.2 Construction:
    Masonry principles using Brick, stone, Blocks – construction detailing and strength characteristics.
    Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing and construction features.
    Common repairs in buildings.
    Principles of functional planning of building for residents and specific use – Building code provisions.
    Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating – specification writing and rate analysis – principles of valuation of real property.
    Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their specific uses – Factors affecting selection of equipment – operating cost of Equipment.1.3 Construction Planning and Management:
    Construction activity – schedules- organization for construction industry – Quality assurance principles.
    Use of Basic principles of network – analysis in form of CPM and PERT – their use in construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation.
    Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.
    Project profitability – Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning – simple toll fixation criterions.
  2. Surveying and Transportation Engineering:
    2.1 Surveying:
    Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for CE work – their use in plane table, traverse survey, leveling work, triangulation, contouring and topographical map.
    Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing.2.2 Railway Engineering:
    Permanent way – components, types and their functions – Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossings – Necessity of geometric design of track – Design of station and yards.2.3 Highway Engineering:
    Principles of Highway alignments – classification and geometrical design elements and standards for Roads.
    Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements – Design principles and methodology of pavements.
    Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works and CC roads.
    Surface and sub-surface drainage arrangements for roads – culvert structures.
    Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays.
    Traffic surveys and their applications in traffic planning – Typical design features for channelized, intersection, rotary etc – signal designs – standard Traffic signs and markings.
  3. Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering:3.1 Hydrology:
    Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam method.3.2 Ground water flow:
    Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined equifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions.3.3 Water Resources Engineering:
    Ground and surface water resource, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation.3.4 Irrigation Engineering:
    (i) Water requirements of crops: consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
    (ii) Canals: Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributary canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load.
    (iii) Water logging: causes and control, salinity.
    (iv)Canal structures: Design of, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.
    (v) Diversion headwork: Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.
    (vi)Storage works: Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity, stability analysis.
    (vii) Spillways: Spillway types, energy dissipation.
    (viii) River training: Objectives of river training, methods of river training.
  4. Environmental Engineering:

    4.1 Water Supply:
    Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.4.2 Intake of water:
    Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-; rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odor and salinity.4.3 Sewerage systems:
    Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage–separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.4.4 Sewage characterization:
    BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal watercourse and on land.4.5 Sewage treatment:
    Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of wastewater.4.6 Solid waste:
    Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill effects.
  5. Environmental pollution: Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.

UPSC 2017 Mains civil engineering syllabus paper 1 mainly focus on the engineering mechanics, design, strength of materials, fluids of mechanics. UPSC 2017 civil engineering syllabus paper 2 mainly focus on construction, hydrology, irrigation and environmental studies. Revise UPSC 2017 civil engineering syllabus, previous papers and as much as you can. While preparing student must keep this civil engineering syllabus to check the progress.

UPSC MAINS Commerce Syllabus & Topics 2017

UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Commerce Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Commerce Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams. There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Commerce and Accounts subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Commerce exam is preferable for degree of or CA or MBA students. Each Commerce paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Commerce mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Commerce mains exam.


Accounting and Finance Accounting, Taxation & Auditing

  1. Financial Accounting:
    Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioral Sciences.
    Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings Per Share.
    Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Bonus Shares, Right Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities.
    Preparation and Presentation of Company Final Accounts.
    Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction of Companies.
  2. Cost Accounting:
    Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting. Installation of Cost Accounting System. Cost Concepts related to Income Measurement, Profit Planning, Cost Control and Decision Making.
    Methods of Costing: Job Costing, Process Costing, Activity Based Costing. Volume – cost – Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning.
    Incremental Analysis/ Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decisions, Product Decisions, Make or Buy Decisions, Shut- Down Decisions etc.
    Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool of Planning and Control. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis.
    Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.
  3. Taxation:
    Income Tax: Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income. Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various Heads, i.e., Salaries, Income from House Property, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Capital Gains, Income from other sources, Income of other Persons included in Assessee’s Total Income .
    Set – Off and Carry Forward of Loss.
    Deductions from Gross Total Income.
    Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.
  4. Auditing:
    Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Dividends, Special investigations, Tax audit. Audit of Banking, Insurance, Non-Profit Organizations and Charitable Societies/Trusts/Organizations.

Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets

  1. Financial Management: Finance Function: Nature, Scope and Objectives of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship. Tools of Financial Analysis: Ratio Analysis, Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement.Capital Budgeting Decisions: Process, Procedures and Appraisal Methods. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods. Cost of capital: Concept, Computation of Specific Costs and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. CAPM as a Tool of Determining Cost of Equity Capital.Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure – Net Income (NI) Approach, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach and Traditional Approach.
    Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages (Operating, Financial and Combined), EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors.Dividend Decisions and Valuation of Firm: Walter’s Model, MM Thesis, Gordan’s Model Lintner’s Model. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy.Working Capital Management: Planning of Working Capital. Determinants of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital – Cash, Inventory and Receivables.
    Corporate Restructuring with focus on Mergers and Acquisitions (Financial aspects only)
  2. Financial Markets and Institutions:
    Indian Financial System: An Overview Money Markets: Participants, Structure and Instruments. Commercial Banks. Reforms in Banking sector. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI. RBI as a Regulator.Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; SEBI as a Regulator.Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, Insurance and IRDA.


Organisation Theory and Behaviour, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations Organisation Theory and Behaviour

  1. Organisation Theory:
    Nature and Concept of Organisation; External Environment of Organizations – Technological, Social, Political, Economical and Legal; Organizational Goals – Primary and Secondary goals, Single and Multiple Goals; Management by Objectives.Evolution of Organization Theory: Classical, Neo-classical and Systems Employment News 31 May – 6 June 2014 31 Approach.
    Modern Concepts of Organization Theory: Organizational Design, Organizational Structure and Organizational Culture.
    Organisational Design–Basic Challenges; Differentiation and Integration Process; Centralization and Decentralization Process; Standardization / Formalization and Mutual Adjustment. Coordinating Formal and Informal Organizations. Mechanistic and Organic Structures.
    Designing Organizational structures–Authority and Control; Line and Staff Functions, Specialization and Coordination. Types of Organization Structure –Functional. Matrix Structure, Project Structure. Nature and Basis of Power, Sources of Power, Power Structure and Politics. Impact of Information Technology on Organizational Design and Structure.
    Managing Organizational Culture.
  2. Organisation Behaviour:Meaning and Concept; Individual in organizations: Personality, Theories, and Determinants; Perception – Meaning and Process.Motivation: Concepts, Theories and Applications. Leadership-Theories and Styles.
    Quality of Work Life (QWL): Meaning and its impact on Performance, Ways of its Enhancement. Quality Circles (QC) – Meaning and their Importance. Management of Conflicts in Organizations. Transactional Analysis, Organizational Effectiveness, Management of Change.

Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations

  1. Human Resources Management (HRM):
    Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRM, Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, Recruitment Process, Selection Process, Orientation and Placement, Training and Development Process, Performance Appraisal and 360° Feed Back, Salary and Wage Administration, Job Evaluation, Employee Welfare, Promotions, Transfers and Separations.
  2. Industrial Relations (IR):
    Meaning, Nature, Importance and Scope of IR, Formation of Trade Unions, Trade Union Legislation, Trade Union Movement in India. Recognition of Trade Unions, Problems of Trade Unions in India. Impact of Liberalization on Trade Union Movement.

Nature of Industrial Disputes: Strikes and Lockouts, Causes of Disputes, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes. Worker’s Participation in Management: Philosophy, Rationale, Present Day Status and Future Prospects.
Adjudication and Collective Bargaining. Industrial Relations in Public Enterprises, Absenteeism and Labour Turnover in Indian Industries and their Causes and Remedies.
ILO and its Functions.

UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS 2017 PAPER 1 mainly focus on Accounting, Taxation, Auditing, Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets. UPSC MAINS COMMERCE SYLLABUS 2016 PAPER 2 mainly focus on Organization Theory and Behavior, Human Resource Management, Industrial Relations, Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations. Revise UPSC Mains commerce syllabus 2017 previous papers as much as you can. While preparing student must keep this UPSC 2017 commerce mains to check the progress.

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