How to Prepare UPSC Economics Paper 2017 – Preparation Strategy

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  Economics Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Economics Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for Economics optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects.

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Economics Paper 2017

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Economics Paper 2017

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – Economics Paper

UPSC MAINS ECONOMICS SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Economics Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Economics Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams . There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Economics subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Economics exam also called engineering services exam. UPSC Economics exam is preferable for Economics students. Each Economics paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Economics mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Economics mains exam.Details of the UPSC ias mains Economics syllabus is given below.

Read : UPSC Civil Services Economics Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for Economics Paper

Preparation of Economics (mains)

It’s advisable to start Economics preparation as early as possible after the upsc preliminary examination and with focussed, systematic study one can complete the subject by end of august.

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

Check : UPSC Economics Important Topics – Optional Paper

Method of Studying

– In economics, diagrams are of utmost importance. UPSC economics is completely non mathematical and totally diagramatical. So while reading any model / theorem, we should simultaneously practise its diagram on paper / computer.

– Assumptions are very important while writing answers. We should clearly state all the assumptions in our answers and so we should systematically remember all the assumptions in any theorem / model.

– Stats: In eco 2, stats are very important. If we supplement our answers with stats, nothing like it. Not all stats need to be remembered, only important ones. I am mentioning the important stats to be remembered in the book list section.

Book List / Sources for Syllabus

Paper – I

  1. Advanced Micro Economics:

(a) Marshallian and Walrasiam Approaches to Price determination.
(b) Alternative Distribution Theories: Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki
(c) Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.
(d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.

These topics have to be studied from HL Ahuja “Advanced Microeconomics”. Find the relevant chapters to study from this thick book. In addition, questions are asked on “Rent, quasi rent” and “Product Exhaustion Problem”, so study the relevant chapters also. HL Ahuja is UPSC exam standard book for micro. Sen’s swf and proof of Arrow can be studied from my notes. I took Sen’s swf from one of his book and proof of Arrow from one of Sen’s paper. Proof of Arrow given in HL Ahuja and taught by most coachings is wrong, it is simply a proof of Concordet’s paradox, not Arrow. Just imagine, had the proof of Arrow been so elementary, would he have got the Nobel prize for it?

  1. Advanced Macro Economics:

Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination: Classical, Keynes (IS-LM) curve, Neo classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.

These topics should be first studied from HL Ahuja’s “Macroeconomics” book. This book is below UPSC exam standard, but reading this is essential to understand higher concepts. The UPSC level book is Brian Snowdon and Howard R Vane “Modern Macroeconomics” (given to me by Amit Sahu). Only first 5 chapters need to be studied from this book.

  1. Money – Banking and Finance:

(a) Demand for and Supply of Money: Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.

This can be studied from HL Ahuja’s Macroeconomics and Snowdon’s Modern Macroeconomics (Ch 2, 3). Also, although UPSC doesn’t mention post keynesian Baumol’s and Inventory theory of money demand in syllabus, it asks questions on these. So read them from HL Ahuja. There are some topics for which material may be scarce, read them from my notes.

(b) Public Finance and its Role in Market Economy: In stabilization of supply, allocation of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Govt. revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public Expenditure and its effects.

I studied from Musgrave and Musgrave, selected chapters. People also mention HL Bhatia a lot. I was satisfied with my preparation until I saw the public finance questions this year. I couldn’t even understand the questions. I don’t know where else to study public finance from.

  1. International Economics:

(a) Old and New Theories of International Trade

(i) Comparative Advantage
(ii) Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.
(iii) Product Cycle and Strategic Trade Theories.
(iv) Trade as an engine of growth and theories of under development in an open economy.
(b) Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota.

(c) Balance of Payments Adjustments: Alternative Approaches.

(i) Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates,
(ii) Theories of Policy Mix
(iii) Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility
(iv) Floating Rates and their Implicationns for Developing Countries: Currency Boards.
(v) Trade Policy and Developing Countries.
(vi) BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro-model.
(vii) Speculative attacks
(viii) Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.
(ix) WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.

There is only one book on International Economics and it is by Dominick Salvatore. Diagrams are the key in IntEco.

  1. Growth and Development:

(a) Theories of growth:

(i) Harrod’s model,
(ii) Lewis model of development with surplus labour
(iii) Balanced and Unbalanced growth,

These topics are covered well in A P Thirwall’s book. Todaro may also be referred for some topics.

(iv) Human Capital and Economic Growth.
(v) Research and Development and Economic Growth

These are dicey topics and cover many models. I studied them from a paper by John Bluedorn “The human capital augmented solow model” and a book “Introduction to Economic Growth” by Charles I. Jones (given to me by Amit Sahu).

(b) Process of Economic Development of Less developed countries: Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.

Myrdal and Kuznets can be studied from AP Thirwall. Not all aspects of Myrdal are covered in Thirwall, I had one pdf I found after googling on Myrdal which covered aspects like how less developed economies have backwash effects strong and how developed democracies have stronger spread effects, I don’t seem to have the pdf now.

(c) Economic development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.

(d) Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private- Public Partnership

(e) Welfare indicators and measures of growth – Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.

(f) Development and Environmental Sustainability – Renewable and Non Renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.

These are general topics and haven’t found a single source for them so far. Very little preparation.

Paper – II

  1. Indian Economy in Pre-Independence Era: Land System and its changes, Commercialization of agriculture, Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport: Jute, Cotton, Railways, Money and Credit.

These I studied mainly from my hitory optional preparation for cse 2012. You can see some in my notes.

  1. Indian Economy after Independence:

A The Pre Liberalization Era:

(i) Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.

Till date I have not found a single decent source to prepare this. I have never been able to prepare this. If someone has a good source, pls let me know, I ll update here.

(ii) Agriculture: Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture,
(iii) Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, Small scale and cottage industries.
(iv) National and Per capita income: patterns, trends, aggregate and Sectoral composition and changes their in.
(v) Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.

Uma Kapilla is a very good source for these topics. One should also focus on economic stats. Can also see my notes. Stats on efficacy of land reforms need to be remembered (see my notes), stats on economic growth rate, growth rates of agriculture, industry, manufacturing, capital goods, services, per capita income need to be remembered for 3 periods – 1950s to 1965, 1965 to 1980, 1980 to 1990.

B .The Post Liberalization Era:

(i) New Economic Reform and Agriculture: Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, Subsidies, Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.
(ii) New Economic Policy and Industry: Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals.
(iii) New Economic Policy and Trade: Intellectual property rights: Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.
(iv) New Exchange Rate Regime: Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.
(v) New Economic Policy and Public Finance: Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.
(vi) New Economic Policy and Monetary system. Role of RBI under the new regime.
(vii) Planning: From central Planning to indicative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning: 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.
(viii) New Economic Policy and Employment: Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural, Employment Guarantee Scheme.

No single source. EPW helps. One also has to study a lot of research papers by eminent economists working in India. I studied a lot of them n put the gist in my notes. So can see my notes. Stats on poverty, unemployment (recent ones as well as from 1993-94) need to be remembered. See notes.

Answer Writing in Economics

Neeraj Singh (AIR 11, CSE 2011) told us the following things about answer writing. I am sorry I am reproducing his email without his permission but I hope he won’t mind. I don’t think I can put it in better words than him…

For paper 1

  1. Make maximum use of graphs – I think ‘a picture is worth thousand words’ is much more than just an adage. Graphs are extremely helpful in writing precise answers in Econ. When you look at a question in paper 1 the first question you should be asking yourself is – What graph(s) would best answer this question? Try to think of ways in which you can answer the question through graphs. The benefit of using graphs is that once you make a graph, the writing part becomes very easy as it is only an explanation of the graph. It might not be possible to put graphs in every question but do give your best shot at explaining things through graphs.
  2. Precision matters – We would agree that Econ is quite technical a subject with it own vocabulary. Being an economist you cannot hence afford to use words loosely. For example, if we are using the term ‘depreciation’ we must mean ‘depreciation’ and not ‘devaluation’. The answer that you write should reflect your absolute clarity over technical economic terms. Where it is possible to use a technical word go ahead and use it instead of explaining it in layman’s terms provided that you know that it is the precise technical term to be used in that place. I am sure all of us on the group are already good at this but just felt like pointing it out explicitly.

Precision is equally important in graphs as well. One simply cannot afford to draw graphs that look rough in the exam. If you are drawing isoprofit curves, for example, for firm A marked on X axis you have to ensure that the higher isoprofit curves are such that the maxima is always to the left of the lower one and the reaction curve passes through all these maxima. If you happen to draw the curves in such a way that the reaction curve does not pass through all maximas then you are drawing an imprecise graph. I believe one’s basic understanding of microeconomics is tested in the precision of these graphs. If the graphs are not precise it leaves a bad impression about your basic understanding. Agreed that it is near impossible to draw graphs as good as the computer generated ones but at least we can practice enough to ensure that we do not violate any principle of mircoeconomics while drawing our graphs. I personally had devoted a lot of time and effort before the exam in getting my graphs right. It so happened that on the day of my Econ paper I had forgotten to take an eraser with me (it isn’t a nice feeling when you get to know that in the exam hall) but I had all my graphs so well etched in my mind that I didn’t need to use an eraser in my paper.

  1. Cut the chase and get to the point – Your first sentence of the answer should itself reflect that you have a command over the topic. Even if you know the topic and you don’t get down to the job right from the first sentence it gives an impression that you are trying to fool your way around. So at least for Econ paper 1 get straight down to the core of the answer. You need not explain what’s the background or history – the examiner isn’t really looking for that.
  2. Avoid math – Yes, for UPSC at least. The less equations you put the better. If at any place there is a way to show something through a graph and the same thing through a mathematical proof, go for the graph.
  3. Be logical – Economics is as close to decuctive logic as any social science can get. Most answers in paper 1 are based on deductive logic. Make sure you get the premises right and place arguments in such a way that the conclusion flows.
  4. Choose questions wisely – At times there may be some questions from the similar topics. Like for HO there maybe two questions of 20 marks, one in question 3 and one in question 5. As far as possible attempt either question 3 or 5, not both. But if you have no other choice attempt them anyways but be strategic there. Suppose question 3 is about criticisms of HOS model and question 5 is about Leontief Paradox then you have to make sure that you don’t get carried away writing a lot about Leontief Paradox in question 3 because anyways you have to answer that in detail in question 5. You cannot write similar things in two answers and expect the examiner to give you marks for both.
  5. Cut the et cetera – This is a small point but I say this because I see people all too often using the indeterminate ‘et cetera’ (yours truly being guilty himself). In Econ, you have to show your precise knowledge and understanding of the topic asked. Using ‘et cetera’ simply gives an impression that you are trying to cover for things you do not know. So if there are multiple things and you want to mention only few of them state upfront that the ones you are stating are in your opinion to more relevant ones for this particular answer.

For paper 2

  1. Have a narrative – In my opinion, this is the most important thing in both Econ paper 2 and Pub Ad answer writing. Paper 2 is where you have the luxury to present your own opinions. Your opinions, should hence look like they are firmly grounded in facts. For that you need to build a narrative into your answer. By narrative I mean it should be a piece standing all by itself. It shouldn’t be on crutches. If shouldn’t read like an excerpt from a chapter. It shouldn’t read like a part incomplete without the whole. It should read like a whole in itself. A precise, clinical dissection of the issue in hand and inferences drawn from the dissection aided by facts – that is what a good answer is according to me.
  2. Use data wherever possible – It is good to use data if you remember. If you don’t, do not attempt the questions that require you to. I, for one, am bad at remembering data. So I let the data heavy questions in paper 2 pass.
  3. Use examples liberally – Use them to support your arguments. Use innovative examples, not the routine ones. Keep your ears and eyes open for such examples when you are reading newspaper. Look around you, see what is happening in your state or district. You could quote examples from your state which will make your answer different.
  4. Never take a radical stand on any issue unless you have strong data and facts behind you.
  5. Use a style that befits the question – You will have to decide then and there whether the question best lends itself to a paragraph format, point format or tabular format. Do not go with preconceived notions about one style being better than the other.

Finally, practice writing answers a lot and set absolutely high standards for yourself. When you have written a piece you cannot let yourself be content if your don’t think it is your absolute best. Re-write, re-write – that’s the only key.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study Economics 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Electrical Engineering Paper 2017

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  Electrical Engineering Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Electrical Engineering Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for Electrical Engineering optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects.

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Electrical Engineering Paper 2017

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Electrical Engineering Paper 2017

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – Electrical Engineering Paper

UPSC MAINS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Electrical Engineering Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Electrical Engineering Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams . There are 2 optional papers in UPSC mains exam. In UPSC mains examination paper 6&7 are optional subject papers. Electrical Engineering subject comes under UPSC optional subject. UPSC Electrical Engineering exam also called engineering services exam. UPSC Electrical Engineering exam is preferable for Electrical Engineering students. Each Electrical Engineering paper consists of 250 marks. Duration for each Electrical Engineering mains paper is 3 hours. Here is a detailed syllabus of UPSC 2017 Electrical Engineering mains exam.Details of the UPSC ias mains Electrical Engineering syllabus is given below.

Read : UPSC Civil Services Electrical Engineering Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for Electrical Engineering Paper

Preparation of Electrical Engineering (mains)

It’s advisable to start Electrical Engineering preparation as early as possible after the upsc preliminary examination and with focussed, systematic study one can complete the subject by end of august.

Books on Electrical Engineering as Optional subject for IAS Exam are as Follows:

We have compiled for you a list of IAS books for Electrical Engineering to help you in your prepration for the IAS and other services under the UPSC. so it helps to know the best reference books for the ias exam.

  • Modern Central Engineering – Ogata
  • Electrical Technology – Thereja
  • Electrical Power – Gupta
  • Physics of Semiconductor Devices – Sze
  • Automatic Control System – Kuo
  • Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics – Rao
  • Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating System – Jordan & Balmain
  • Integrated Circuits – D. Roy Choudhary
  • Network Analysis – Valkenbury
  • Basic Current Analysis – Murthy
  • Electromagnetic Waives and Field – R.N. Singh
  • Control Systems Engineering – Nagrath Gopal
  • Semi Conductor – Nandhita
  • Semi Conductor – Nagchoudhary
  • Principals of Electronics – V.K. Mehta
  • Radio Engineering – G.K. Mithal
  • Circuit Analysis – Gupta

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

To prepare for Electrical Engg. paper, you should start by looking at the syllabus and then previous years question paper. You need to look for the sections that UPSC put more focus on. With the change in pattern of question papers, one can not take risk of leaving out any section now. In such papers, they use to ask everything that you have read in 4 yrs of your engg. and this makes these subjects a little difficult to cover. If you are not absolutely sure about taking electrical engg. as your subject, my advice would be to take some other subject.

The preparation for Mains must be over before you start with Preliminary preparation, as the Main exam syllabus covers nearly 75% of the requirements of the Preliminary examination.

If a student has not done graduation with Electrical Engineering, the suggested strategy would be as follows.

(1) Surveying the syllabus of Electrical Engineering carefully and identifying the completely unfamiliar areas.

(2)  Going through at least 2 basic books with a purpose to acquaint yourself with the unfamiliar areas. You can consider the following books:(a) The NCERT Text Books for Biology–Std. XI and XII

(b) Electrical Engineering for Engineering Students

(3)  Doing a careful survey of the past 5 years’ Main Examination Question Papers and identifying the areas of significance.

(4)  Identifying the most fruitful areas:

(5)  If we see the Main Examination paper of last few years, then it is obvious that the UPSC can ask even a short note on a topic which is otherwise quite long in coverage.

How to Study Electrical Engineering for IAS Mains

The right strategy should be to go through each section of the syllabus and pick up the books and read them carefully. First pick up lighter books to clear your concepts and then go on to read the advance books.

Cover the entire syllabus and after reading each segment and make notes of them simultaneously. Remember that your notes will be the final course material for reading and revising in future. So take your time and do a good job with it.

Prepare out short notes of important formulas and important points relevant to conventional type questions and just before the examination rely solely on it.

Go ahead and start your preparation with books listed here. If any section of the syllabus is not covered in these books, you can look for other suggestive readings.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

UPSC Mains Electrical Engineering Question Papers

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study Electrical Engineering 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Geography Paper 2017

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  Geography Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Geography Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for Geography optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects.

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Geography Paper 2017

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Geography Paper 2017

UPSC Mains Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of human geography and physical geography.

To Prepare UPSC Civil Services Geography Paper for 2017, you need to follow below given steps.

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – Geography Paper

UPSC MAINS GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Geography Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams .

Read : UPSC Civil Services Geography Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for Geography Paper

Civil Services Geography part (As part of GS or as optional) requires vast but focused reading. Apart from the IAS Books for Geography – Civil Services Prelims Exam, the below mentioned books can help.

Recommended Books for Geography – Civil Services Books – Mains Exam

Physical geography

  • Physical Geography By Savinder Singh
  • Physical Geography By Stahler
  • Physical Geography Made Simple Books
  • Geography Through Maps by K. Siddhartha

Geo-morphology : Geomorphology by Savindra Singh

Climatology :

  • Climatology by D. S. Lal
  • Atmosphere, Weather and Climate – K.Siddhartha

Human Geography

  • Human Geography By Majid Hussain
  • Urbanization and Urban Systems in India

Indian Geography

  • India – A comprehensive Geography
  • Regional Planning in India – Chand and Puri
  • Oxford School Atlas
  • Environmental Geography
  • Indian Economy

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

The preparation for Mains must be over before you start with Preliminary preparation, as the Main exam syllabus covers nearly 75% of the requirements of the Preliminary examination.

If a student has not done graduation with Geography, the suggested strategy would be as follows.

(1) Surveying the syllabus of Geography carefully and identifying the completely unfamiliar areas.

(2)  Going through at least 2 basic books with a purpose to acquaint yourself with the unfamiliar areas.

You can consider the following books:(a) The NCERT Text Books for geography–Std. XI and XII

(b) Geography for Degree Students

(3)  Doing a careful survey of the past 5 years’ Main Examination Question Papers and identifying the areas of significance.

(4)  Identifying the most fruitful areas:

(5)  If we see the Main Examination paper of last few years, then it is obvious that the UPSC can ask even a short note on a topic which is otherwise quite long in coverage.

How to Study Geography for IAS Mains

Study approach for Geography

This optional is meant for Patience and Calmness. We need to make different strategies for both paper.

There may be some questions out of the topics in the syllabus, prepare for these new topics also as these repeat regularly.

For Paper 1

As you maybe aware, the pattern of the question paper is that Three questions from one section and Two from the second has to be answered, with the first and fifth questions being compulsory.

And with hydrogeology and engineering geology covering the eighth question, you are left with only compulsory question i.e, the fifth, which is covered by all three chapters of section-B

As Palaeontology and Stratigraphy are little difficult and too lengthy to cover, But Still I covered both the topics in fine manner but due to paucity of time ,wasn’t able to revise.

By this way one can almost cover 80-90% of syllabus and be sure of attending minimum of 180-190 marks.

For Paper 2

Section-A is very vast, difficult and technically deep, it is very difficult and time consuming to study it in it’s entirety; therefore I would recommend a selective approach.

Mineralogy is very important and also covers almost two questions (out of which one being compulsory) it is very important to study it. I bought J.D Dana ,but didn’t read it.My single most important source for examination was K.M Bangar and it rescued me for this topic also. I thoroughly read Tulane Notes also.

Sedimentology is very small and easy out of the three, so do it completely. Study questions from last ten years question papers for petrography (as its too big, difficult and doesn’t recur as much as mineralogy in the exam).Prepare topics by looking at questions also, as  these topics are itself branches of subjects and you might be overwhelmed by content available online.(Mind you material in market would be negligible as for Shopkeepers Geology is Geography only)

Section-B is simple, limited and scoring. With economic and mining geology being compact and interlinked they are easy to study and will also give good dividends in exam (do study these topics at all costs).

Economic geology (especially processes) may seem lengthy but these are the ones recur most often in exam.

And  finally, Geochemistry and Environmental geology is a mix of little theoretical Geochemistry and current affairs. One can feel that Geochemistry is little too tedious, but studYing it is very helpful in exam. (Consider it as a backup if you don’t know some questions from Economic Geology in exam)

NOTE : Don’t just be prepared for Five questions, because as last year all questions were jumbled and there was no differentiation between Section-A and B.  So prepare for at least six of seven questions and don’t leave any chapter, if due to some reason you feel like skipping a chapter, do ensure that you go through the question papers of the last decade and study the questions that have came from here .

Problems & Advantages of Geography Paper

Problems :

  • No proper guidance as very few serious aspirants take it (I found it very difficult to get any info about books and how to prepare).
  • No readymade material (there is one in Delhi market by brilliant,I didn’t use that as well as got feedback from people that it is haphazardly prepared and print quality is poor).
  • No coaching (as very few write).
  • No test series.

Advantages :

  • Limited syllabus (but lengthy).
  • Lot of repeating questions.
  • Some Overlap with Geography (paper 1,part A)

Answer writing

  1. For Long answers-Introduction can be either indirect through some lines or quotes or direct with general explanation followed by exact definition.
  2. Thereafter topic need to be explained in short followed by establishing links with other chapters and focusing on the question again. Here give a pause,read the question again & think again. Diagrams can be used effectively.
  3. Ending of the answers should always be visionary/positive and solution based with example if needed or with some lines.
  4. There should be mixed use of paras and points. Examples should be quoted wherever possible but refrain from using one enterprise again & again.
  5. For short answers, write the basic definition and then directly hit the core.
  6. Ending should be solution based. For merit/demerit/feature use diagram or points.
  7. Test series can be joined for practice.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study Geography 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Geology Paper 2017

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  Geology Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Geology Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for Geology optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects. UPSC Mains Geology ( is an earth science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars).

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Geology Paper 2017

Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates. Geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and for providing insights into past climate change. Geology also plays a role in geotechnical engineering and is a major academic discipline.

 Preparation Strategy for UPSC Mains Geology Paper 2017

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – Geology Paper

UPSC MAINS GEOLOGY SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Geology Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Geology Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams .

Read : UPSC Civil Services Geology Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for Geology Paper

The books mentioned below are standard reference material out which you have to do selective reading. The best strategy would be to choose a topic from the syllabus and read it from any standard book and make your own notes for each topic and revise them any number of time. Among the books mentioned Mukherjee is a good book for many topics. So is the book by Aussif Sayeed, which is actually from the Civil Services point of view. The graduation notes of Geology students, prepared by any good college professor can be extremely helpful.

Book List for Geology

  • Trends in objective geology by Aussif Sayeed
  • Text Book of Geology – P.K. Mukherjee
  • Concise geology by P.K Mukherjee
  • Geology: An Introduction – Kronaris and Krambine
  • Text Book of Physical Geology – Mahapatra
  • Geomorphology – Woolridge or Tharnbury
  • Principles of Petrology – G.W. Turrel
  • Petrography – Williams
  • Mineral and Crystal Science – V.C. Jesh
  • Sedimentary Rocks – Petti John
  • Underground Hydrology – David Keith Toad
  • Igneous Rocks and Metromorphic Petrology – Turner
  • Ocean – Squaredrop, Johnson and Bliming
  • General and engineering geology by Parbin singh
  • Simple Geological Structure – Plate and Charlincr
  • Soil Minerology – I. E. Grim
  • A Dictionary of Geology – Morrison
  • Geology and evolution of Indian plate
  • Geology and Evolution of the Indian Plate (From Hadean to Holocene – 4Ga to 4 Ka) / Naqvi, S.M.
  • Concise Glossary of Geology / Mathur, S.M. – 2007
  • Dimensions of Himalayan Geology / Biyani, A.K. – 2007
  • Marine Geology : A Scenario Around Indian Coasts / T.K. Mallik
  • Hydrocarbon Potential and Exploration Strategy of Cauvery Basin, India / J.N. Sahu
  • Current affairs by Arihant publishers
  • Currents affairs by Pearson publishers

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

The preparation for Mains must be over before you start with Preliminary preparation, as the Main exam syllabus covers nearly 75% of the requirements of the Preliminary examination.

If a student has not done graduation with Geology, the suggested strategy would be as follows.

(1) Surveying the syllabus of Geology carefully and identifying the completely unfamiliar areas.

(2)  Going through at least 2 basic books with a purpose to acquaint yourself with the unfamiliar areas. You can consider the following books:(a) The NCERT Text Books for geology–Std. XI and XII

(b) Geology for Degree Students

(3)  Doing a careful survey of the past 5 years’ Main Examination Question Papers and identifying the areas of significance.

(4)  Identifying the most fruitful areas:

(5)  If we see the Main Examination paper of last few years, then it is obvious that the UPSC can ask even a short note on a topic which is otherwise quite long in coverage.

How to Study Geology for IAS Mains

Study approach for Geology

This optional is meant for Patience and Calmness. We need to make different strategies for both paper.

  1. Make your own notes: It is always advisable to make notes of the related topics as you go through the books and other study material. A well drafted note solves two purposes. One it takes you through the entire syllabus and second your own notes will be of immense help for the revision of the syllabus.
  2. Current affairs: Going through a standard newspaper daily can keep you updated on the current affairs topics.
  3. General awareness: Any good guide book or year book will help you cover this segment.

Geology Exam Preparation Tips

  • Prepare short notes of important topics with relevant points and always rely on your self-prepared notes. Go through your short notes rigorously.
  • Never go through any book on the eve of examination.
  • Don’t read any new topic.
  • Don’t get engaged with any confusing question or problem on the eve of the examination.
  • Rely on your prior preparation that alone will help you.
  • Take a good sleep on the eve of examination. It is most important tip for your brilliant performance.
  • Do not lose your confidence.

Answer writing

  1. For Long answers-Introduction can be either indirect through some lines or quotes or direct with general explanation followed by exact definition.
  2. Thereafter topic need to be explained in short followed by establishing links with other chapters and focusing on the question again. Here give a pause,read the question again & think again. Diagrams can be used effectively.
  3. Ending of the answers should always be visionary/positive and solution based with example if needed or with some lines.
  4. There should be mixed use of paras and points. Examples should be quoted wherever possible but refrain from using one enterprise again & again.
  5. For short answers, write the basic definition and then directly hit the core.
  6. Ending should be solution based. For merit/demerit/feature use diagram or points.
  7. Test series can be joined for practice.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

The Geology question paper lisetd below are actual papers that were given for teh civil service mains examination held by UPSC. Our UPSC Geology question bank is updated till questions of 2015.

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study Geology 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

Preparation Strategy for UPSC IAS History Paper

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  History Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services History Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for History optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects. History  is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians.

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services History Paper 2017

How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services History Paper 2017

 

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – History Paper

UPSC MAINS HISTORY SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains History Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains History Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams .

Read : UPSC Civil Services History Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for History Paper

  • Ancient India (NCERT) Prof. R.S. Sharma
  • The Wonder That was India A.L. Basham
  • Ancient India – An Introductory Outline D.N. Jha
  • History of India, Vol. I Romila Thapar
  • Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India R.S. Sharma (only Conclusion)
  • Material culture & Social Formation in Ancient India R.S. Sharma
  • Indian Feudalism- R.S. Sharma
  • Ashoka & Decline of the Maurya Romila Thapar
  • A History of South India K.A. Nilkantha Sastri
  • Ancient India and Indian Archaeology Archaeological Survey of India
  • Ancient India Social and Culture – Luniya
  • An Advanced History of India – R.C. Majumda, H.C. Raychaudhurai, – Kalikinkar Datta
  • Ancient India – L.Mukherjee
  • The rise of civilization of India and Pakistan – Bridget and Raymond Allchin
  • Mauryan : Ashoka and the decline of mouryan empire – Romila Thapar
  • Facets of Indian Culture – Spectrum
  • NCERT (11th)
  • Indus Civilization – (a) IGNOU booklet no. 2

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

The preparation for Mains must be over before you start with Preliminary preparation, as the Main exam syllabus covers nearly 75% of the requirements of the Preliminary examination.

If a student has not done graduation with History, the suggested strategy would be as follows.

(1) Surveying the syllabus of History carefully and identifying the completely unfamiliar areas.

(2)  Going through at least 2 basic books with a purpose to acquaint yourself with the unfamiliar areas.

You can consider the following books:(a) The NCERT Text Books for History–Std. XI and XII

(b) History for Degree Students

(3)  Doing a careful survey of the past 5 years’ Main Examination Question Papers and identifying the areas of significance.

(4)  Identifying the most fruitful areas:

(5)  If we see the Main Examination paper of last few years, then it is obvious that the UPSC can ask even a short note on a topic which is otherwise quite long in coverage.

How to Study History for IAS Mains

Study approach for History

This optional is meant for Patience and Calmness. We need to make different strategies for both paper.

History, undoubtedly, remains one of the ‘most popular’ optional subjects among those who take the Civil Services Main Examination.

If you are not intimidated by a big syllabus, this subject has a number of advantages: it is easier to grasp, plenty of study material, history covers an important segment of General Studies paper.

A judicious mix of ‘hard work’ and ‘right strategy’ can see you through if you take history as an optional paper.

The History paper in the Main Exam stresses on concepts behind the facts of historical happenings.

We have listed below is the ‘right strategy’ for each section of the history paper for the mains exam.

Ancient Indian history

There is greater emphasis on sources of early Indian history. This has gained currency in the new syllabus. So make notes on the sources that are available to record ancient Indian history. Among various source the archaeological source is the most important source to study of ancient India. It covers from the prehistoric times to the Iron Age and you have to keep track of latest findings of this source.

In the revised syllabus, the politico-administrative history from pre-Mauryan period – rise of Mahajanapadas, to post-Gupta period-beginning of feudalism and centrifugal trends, has been given more significance. So prepare this section with great importance.

Your strategy should be to start from the Indus civilisation and trace the evolution up to the post-Gupta period.

The other area of emphasis should be major Philosophical thinkers and schools in ancient India. Here you must make notes on Brahmanical, Buddhist and Jain philosophical schools.

In science and mathematics segment of ancient India , you must have notes on the contribution of the Indus valley civilization to ancient Indian scientist like Patanjali and Aryabhatta besides other.

Medieval Indian History

You may categorise medieval Indian history into five subsections to make things simpler:

  1. Give greater emphasis on contemporary historians and sources of the medieval Indian history. Prepare short answers on them
  2. You must study the Delhi sultanate in totality.
  3. Similarly prepare the entire Mughal rule holistically, but give special emphasis on the age of Akbar.
  4. In medieval India section prepare all the provincial dynasties but give special emphasis on the Cholas, the Vijayanagar and the Marathas. This is the most important section from the examination point of view
  5. Other Important topics are: Society during medieval times; Bhakti movement: Sankaracharya, Ramanuja, Chaitanya, Kabir, Bhakti movement in South India, Lingayats, Maharashtra Dharma; Sufi-movement; architecture from early Sultanate to the Lodis etc. You must have a comparative and evolutionary approach while preparing this section.

Modern Indian History

Majority of the questions comes from Modern Indian history. It will be advisable to prepare the themes chronological and unit-wise.

a) British conquests and Indian reactions:

  1. The syllabus mentions Mysore, Punjab, the Marathas and their resistance against the colonial power. You must study the native states resistance to the British conquest
  2. Next you may prepare the political, social and economic circumstances leading to the 1857 revolt. Besides prepare notes on other uprisings, such as tribal, civil and peasants’ revolt.

b) British economic policy:

An important aspect of British colonisation was economic exploitation of India and its ruinous impact on the Indian society. In this regard pro-nationalistic and leftist ideological viewpoints must be taken into account while preparing the notes for this segment.

c) Socio-cultural aspects:

i) It includes sub-topics like Indian Renaissance, Christian missionary activities, evolution of educational and social policies and its role in rise of nationalism in India. ii) Other sub-topics are on literary personalities; like Tagore, Premchand, S Bharati and others; film and theatre are important topics. The emphasis is to trace the cultural evolution of modern India. You have to prepare your notes from such perspective.

d) Freedom struggle:

This section also accounts for 90-100 marks in Main General Studies paper too. So a thorough and in-depth study of history of Indian nationalism from 1885 i.e. foundation of Indian national Congress to 1947 and Partition and freedom of India is a must for preparation. Sub-divide the particular unit into following section: i) 1885 to 1916, which includes early Indian nationalism ii) ‘Home Rule’ movement; 1916 to 1945, which is the ‘Gandhian era’. You can start form ‘Champaran experiment’ to ‘Quit India movement’. iii) The Gandhian thought and methods of mass mobilisation should be given special emphasis; iv) 1945 to 1947 – a chronological study of this portion will be the right approach. Analyse how and why Indian nationalism, at the end yielded a paradoxical result, which is partition and freedom together; v) other strands of national movement, which ran parallel to the Congress movement; rise and growth of the revolutionary terrorism; Swarajist movement; social and communist movements; Indian National Army – role of Subhash Chandra Bose and rise and growth of communalism too must be prepared.

e) Independence to 1964:

This unit includes the Nehruvian era and development of an independent Indian polity; Constitution, planned economy and foreign policy are the topics for in-depth preparation.

World History

  1. A good book on international politics or contemporary history will suffice to prepare this portion.
    In this segment you can start with Renaissance, enlightenment and socialist ideas. Similarly, study all the major revolutions that shaped the modern world history. Moreover, the two World Wars have to be studied comprehensively. Few inferences can be drawn from this syllabus;

    1. Going through the syllabus, it be said one can safely conclude that mastering the European history can fetch more marks.
    2. The second half of this section world history deals with more contemporary events and it is relevant to General Studies’ paper too as this section covers important portions of it.
    3. Factual study of individual event is not sufficient for preparation as there is emphasis towards conceptualisation of events than generalisation.
  2. You are required to have detailed and in-depth understanding of the post-World War II developments, such as the ‘Cold War’ and division of world into two military blocs, NATO and Warsaw pact; emergence of the ‘Third World’ and their decision to remain nonaligned; United Nations; decolonisation and factors constraining development of the newly-independent Latin American and African countries.
  3. At the same time you should study the circumstances leading to the end of the ‘Cold War’ and the US ascendancy in the world, as well as the disintegration of Soviet Union, fall of Berlin wall and the US and the UN victory in the Gulf war.
  4. Another important strand of contemporary history is process of integration of nations across the globe, which is ‘Globalisation’. Continent-wise, development in this regard has to be studied. European Union has achieved some success in this regard but “Britexit” has dampened such hopes.

History Important Topics

ANCIENT INDIA

1. Indus Valley civilization
– Society, Religion
– Important Harappan towns & artifacts excavated
– Extension
– Town Planning
– Economical Importance
– Political Life
– Causes of decline
2. Aryan Civilization: – Origin
– Vedic literature
– Religion
– Society
– Polity
– Economic Condition
– Difference between Indus and Aryan
3. Religions movements.
Jainism
– About Mahavira & teachings
– councils
– Important books causes for decline
Buddhism
– Buddha teachings
– Councils
– Important books
– Causes for decline
4. The Mauryan Empire – About Ashoka in detail
– Article and Architecture
– Administration
– Society
5. Central Asian contacts and their results.
– Indo- Greeky
– The Shakas
– The pacthians Article and Architecture
– The Kushans – Kanishka in detail
6. South Indian History
– Sangam Age
– Satavahanas
– Chola’s
– Pallavas art and architecture
7. Gupta Empire
– Administration
– Article and Architecture
– Social development
8. Post-Gupta period
– Harsha in detail
– Fendal System

MEDIVAL INDIA

1. Turkish Invasion
2. Delhi Sultnate
– Rulers and their contribution
– Aibek, Iltumish, Balban, Aluddin Khilji, Mohamad bin Tughlug, Feroz Tughlug, Sikandu lodi, Ibrahim Lodi in detail
– Administration (Important terms)
– Art and Architecture
3. Vijayanagar Empire
– Krishna Devaraya in detail
– Important temples and books
4. Mughals
– Babar’s wars
– Akbar in detail
– Jehangir, Shahjahan, Aurangazeb in detail
– Administration
– Society
– Causes for decline
– Important books (authors)
– Art and Architecture

MODERN INDIA

1. Marathas
– Shivaji in detail
– Administration
– Peshwas and their administration
2. European powers
– Chronologoical order of European powers in India
– East India Company
– Important Governor General and their contribution
Warsen Hastings, Coronwallis, wellesely, William Bentinck, Dalhousie, Lytton, Rippon, Curzon, Mount Patten.
– British rule impact on India
– Social and cultural developments/Awakening
3. Reform movements
– In detail
– Founders and their contribution
– Books
4. 1857 Revolt
– In detail
5. Freedom Struggle
– Formation of INC.
– Moderates and Extremist
– Partition Role of Bengal/Surat Split
– Muslim league
– Lucknow pact
– Minto Morley/Montagu Chelmsford
6. Ghandhian Era
– His experiments
– Non Cooperation Movement
– Civil dis-obedience movement
– Gandhi – Irwin Pact
– August Offer
– Quit India Movement
– Cripps mission
– Cabinet Committee
– Partition
7 .Important
– INC meetings and its resolutions
– President, place
8. Extremist
– Terrorist activites
– Bengal
– Maharastra
– Some other places
9. Subash Chandra Bose
– INA formation in detail

Answer writing

  1. For Long answers-Introduction can be either indirect through some lines or quotes or direct with general explanation followed by exact definition.
  2. Thereafter topic need to be explained in short followed by establishing links with other chapters and focusing on the question again. Here give a pause,read the question again & think again. Diagrams can be used effectively.
  3. Ending of the answers should always be visionary/positive and solution based with example if needed or with some lines.
  4. There should be mixed use of paras and points. Examples should be quoted wherever possible but refrain from using one enterprise again & again.
  5. For short answers, write the basic definition and then directly hit the core.
  6. Ending should be solution based. For merit/demerit/feature use diagram or points.
  7. Test series can be joined for practice.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study History 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Management Paper 2017 – Exam Strategy

Today we are providing UPSC Civil Services  Management Paper preparation tips & strategies. Now we will teach you strategy of “How to Prepare UPSC Civil Services Management Paper 2017″. This post is aimed to help you in forming your strategy for Management optional for Civil Services Exam, considering its various aspects.

How to Prepare UPSC Mains Management Paper 2017

UPSC Management Preparation Strategy

UPSC Mains Management is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.

To Prepare UPSC Civil Services Management Paper for 2017, you need to follow below given steps.

Step 1 : Know the Syllabus – Management Paper

UPSC MAINS MANAGEMENT SYLLABUS 2017. Get UPSC Mains Management Syllabus, Paper structure & Applicable Topics covered in UPSC Mains Management Syllabus. Earlier we’ve provided UPSC Mains Exam Pattern & Structure for 2017 & 2018 exams .

Read : UPSC Civil Services Management Syllabus 2017

Step 2 : Select the Best Reference Books for Management Paper

Civil Services Management part (As part of GS or as optional) requires vast but focused reading. Apart from the IAS Books for Management – Civil Services Prelims Exam, the below mentioned books can help.

Recommended Books for Management – Civil Services Books – Mains Exam

  • Organisational Behavior – Robbins, judge &sanghi
  • Human resource and personnel management – Ashwathappa
  • Marketing – Kotler
  • Financial management – ross, westerfield and jaffe
  • Theory of organizational development and change – Thomas cummings (this is optional, you may only refer to IGNOU notes)
  • For Quant : Complete business statistics: Aczel−Sounderpandian
  • Operations Management: david collier
  • Strategic Management: IIM class ppts/ Mostly IGNOU notes!
  • MIS: laudon and laudon
  • Intl Business: some local author book/ IGNOU
  • Decision making : internet documents/ class PPts

Step 3 : Prepare Important Topics

The preparation for Mains must be over before you start with Preliminary preparation, as the Main exam syllabus covers nearly 75% of the requirements of the Preliminary examination.

If a student has not done graduation with Management, the suggested strategy would be as follows.

(1) Surveying the syllabus of Management carefully and identifying the completely unfamiliar areas.

(2)  Going through at least 2 basic books with a purpose to acquaint yourself with the unfamiliar areas.

You can consider the following books:(a) The NCERT Text Books for Management–Std. XI and XII

(b) Management for Degree Students

(3)  Doing a careful survey of the past 5 years’ Main Examination Question Papers and identifying the areas of significance.

(4)  Identifying the most fruitful areas:

(5)  If we see the Main Examination paper of last few years, then it is obvious that the UPSC can ask even a short note on a topic which is otherwise quite long in coverage.

How to Study Management for IAS Mains

Study approach for Management

This optional is meant for Patience and Calmness. We need to make different strategies for both paper.

There may be some questions out of the topics in the syllabus, prepare for these new topics also as these repeat regularly.

Tips for overall good performance in paper 1 and paper 2

– Practice on previous year question papers frequently

– At least have a general reading of the entire syllabus; you’ll be glad you did it once (and in my opinion you only get time to do this once)

– Revise specific topics again and again, identify your strengths in both papers

– Whatever happens complete your paper, practice time management for paper 2

– Don’t use extraordinary language or models in your answer, use simple frameworks in case studies and quote the most general examples if you wish to quote one

– Whatever happens stick to the syllabus

– Be generous in using internet for topics you are not clear about; internet is the most powerful tool in this optional!

Reading Material

IGNOU booklets released by their department of management studies : these are short, sweet &the most ideal partner for this exam. I relied solely on these at times for HR, Finance, Accounting, Strategic management (actually they are the best source to cover UPSC level questions!) and international business! – do whatever it takes to get hold of these!

Topic wise books used by me are under, you can happily rely on your institute provided books/ ppts; they are also more than sufficient –
• Organisational Behavior – Robbins, judge &sanghi
• Human resource and personnel management – Ashwathappa
• Marketing – Kotler
• Financial management – ross, westerfield and jaffe
• Theory of organizational development and change – Thomas cummings (this is optional, you may only refer to IGNOU notes)
• For Quant : Complete business statistics: Aczel−Sounderpandian
• Operations Management: david collier
• Strategic Management: IIM class ppts/ Mostly IGNOU notes!
• MIS: laudon and laudon
• Intl Business: some local author book/ IGNOU
• Decision making : internet documents/ class PPts

Remember you don’t need to be master of every topic;

you just need to have a broad area of study.

All other things eventually come down to common sense and your good luck on that given day!

Also, there is a simple test to choose whether you should take this optional or not;

here’s how you can decide – just open the last two years’ question papers and read them, if you can at the current moment without any preparation feel that you can attempt 30 – 40% of the paper easily then you must not waste your time looking anywhere else!

Answer writing

  1. For Long answers-Introduction can be either indirect through some lines or quotes or direct with general explanation followed by exact definition.
  2. Thereafter topic need to be explained in short followed by establishing links with other chapters and focusing on the question again. Here give a pause,read the question again & think again. Diagrams can be used effectively.
  3. Ending of the answers should always be visionary/positive and solution based with example if needed or with some lines.
  4. There should be mixed use of paras and points. Examples should be quoted wherever possible but refrain from using one enterprise again & again.
  5. For short answers, write the basic definition and then directly hit the core.
  6. Ending should be solution based. For merit/demerit/feature use diagram or points.
  7. Test series can be joined for practice.

Step 4 : Prepare Previous Question papers

How much time it takes to prepare?

4-5 months, if you study Management 12-15 hours per week. This should be enough. Also, it depends on how much can you recall your graduation concepts.

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